Nickel Alloy 617/ Inconel 617 ®


Technical Data Sheet

 

Chemical Composition Limits

Weight%

Ni

Cr

Mo

Fe

S

C

Mn

B

Cu

Ti

Co

P

Si

Al

Alloy 617

44.5
min

20 - 24

8 - 10

3 max

0.15
max

0.05 - 0.15

1 max

0.006

0.50
max

0.60
max

10 - 15

0.15 max

1 max

0.8 -1 .5

Alloy 617/ Inconel 617 ®(UNS N06617) is a nickel-chromium-cobalt-molybdenum alloy with an exceptional combination of high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. The high nickel and chromium contents make the alloy 617 resistant to a variety of both reducing and oxidising environments, while the aluminium with the chromium provides oxidation resistance at high temperatures. Those elements with the molybdenum enable the alloy to withstand many wet corrosive environments.

Typical Mechanical Properties

 

Material

Form Condition

Yield Strength

Tensile Strength

Elongation %

Reduction of Area

Hardness, BHN

ksi

MPa

ksi

MPa

Alloy 617 Bar

Solution Annealed

46.1

318

111.5

769

56

50

181

Alloy 617 Sheet

Solution Annealed

50.9

351

109.5

755

58

-

173

Alloy 617 Plate

Solution Annealed

46.7

322

106.5

734

62

56

172

Specifications
UNS N06617
ASTM B 166
WS 2.4663a 
ASME SB-166, Boiler Code Sections I, VIII,
SAE AMS 5887, SAE AMS 5888 and SAE AMS 5889
Inconel 617 ®

 

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 INCONEL 617 TECHNICAL DATA

 

Type Analysis

Element

Min

Max

Carbon

0.05

0.15

Nickel

Remainder

Iron

--

3.00

Silicon

--

0.50

Manganese

--

0.50

Cobalt

10.0

15.0

Chromium

20.0

24.0

Titanium

--

0.60

Phosphorus

--

0.015

Sulfur

--

0.015

Molybdenum

8.00

10.0

Aluminum

0.80

1.50

Boron

--

0.006

Copper

--

0.50

Description

Alloy 617 is a solid-solution, nickel-chromium-cobalt-molydenum alloy with an exceptional combination of high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. The alloy also has excellent resistance to a wide range of corrosive environment, and it is readily formed and welded by conventional techniques.
The high nickel and chromium contents make the alloy resistant to a variety of both reducing and oxidizing media. The aluminum, in conjunction with the chromium, provides oxidation resistance at high temperatures. Solid-solution strengthening is imparted by the cobalt and molydenum.


Application

The combination of high strength and oxidation resistance at temperatures over 1800°F makes alloy 617 an attractive material for such components as ducting, combustion cans, and transition liner in both aircraft, and land based gas turbines. Because of its resistance to high-temperature corrosion, the alloy is used for catalyst-grid supports in the production of nitric acid, for heat-treating baskets, and for reduction boats in the refining of molybdenum. Alloy 617 also offers attractive properties for components of power-generating plants, both fossil-fueled and nuclear.


Physical Properties

The alloy's low density, compared with tungsten-containing alloys of similar strength, is significant in applications such as aircraft gas turbines where high strength-to-weight ratio is desirable.

Density, lb/cu in............................................... 0.302

              kg/cu m................................................ 8360

Melting Range, °F.................................... 2430/2510

                         °C................................... 1332-1377

Specific heat at 78°F (26°C)

                         Btu/lb-°F.... ............................. 0.100

                         J/kg-°C........................................ 419

Electrical Resistivity at 78°F (26°C)

                          ohm-cir mil/ft............................. 736

                          æê-m........................................ 1.223

Electrical and Thermal Properties

Temperature

Electrical
Resistivity

Thermal
Conductiviy*

Coefficient
of Expansion**

Specific Heat***

°F

ohm-circ mil/ft

Btu - in/ft² - hr - °F

10(-6)in./in./°F

Btu/lb-°F

78
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000

736
748
757
764
770
779
793
807
803
824
--

94
101
113
125
137
149
161
173
185
197
209

--
6.4
7.0
7.4
7.6
7.7
8.0
8.4
8.7
9.0
9.2

0.100
0.104
0.111
0.117
0.124
0.131
0.137
0.144
0.150
0.157
0.163

°C

æê-m

W/m-°C

æm/m/°C

J/kg-°C

20
100
200
400
600
800
1000

1.222
1.245
1.258
1.278
1.308
1.342
1.378

13.4
14.7
16.3
19.3
22.5
25.5
28.7

--
11.6
12.6
13.6
14.0
15.4
16.3

419
440
465
515
561
611
662

*Calculated from electrical resistivity.
**Mean coefficient of linear expansion between 78°F and temperature shown.
***Calculated values.

Modulus of Elasticity*

Temperature

Tensile
Modulus

Shear
Modulus

Poisson's
Ratio**

°F(°C)

10(6)psi(GPa)

10(6)psi(GPa)

74(25)
200(100)
400(200)
600(300)
800(400)
1000(500)
1200(600)
1400(700)
1600(800)

30.6(211)
30.0(206)
29.0(201)
28.0(194)
26.9(188)
25.8(181)
24.6(173)
23.3(166)
21.9(149)

11.8(81)
11.6(80)
11.2(77)
10.8(75)
10.4(72)
9.9(70)
9.5(66)
9.0(64)
8.4(61)

0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30

 

Mechanical Properties

Product
Form

Production
Method

Yield Strength (0.2% Offset)

Tensile Strength

Elongation,
%

Reduction
of Area,
%

Hardness
BHN

1000 psi

MPa

1000 psi

MPa

Plate
Bar
Tubing
Sheet or Strip

Hot Rolling
Hot Rolling
Cold Drawing
Cold Rolling

46.7
46.1
55.6
50.9

322
318
383
351

106.5
111.5
110.0
109.5

734
769
758
755

62
56
56
58

56
50
--
--

172
181
193
173

Stability of Properties
Alloy 617 exhibits unusually good metallurgical stability for an alloy of its strength level.Studies involving exposure of material to temperatures of 1100°F to 1400°F showed that although the alloy experiences increases in strength and decreased in ductility it forms no embrittling phases. The table below shows changes in tensile and impact properties after exposures extending to 12,000 hours at elevated temperatures. All samples were in the solution-annealed condition before exposure. The strengthening is attributable to carbide formation and, at exposure temperatures of 1200°F to 1400°F, to precipitation of gamma prime phase.

Exposure
Temperature

Exposure
Time,
h

Yield Strength (0.2% Offset)

Tensile Strength

Elongation,
%

Impact
Strength

°F

°C

1000 psi

MPa

1000 psi

MPa

ft-lb

J

No Exposure

--

46.3

319

111.5

769

68

171

232

1100

595

100
1000
4000
8000
12000

46.5
51.8
55.7
59.5
67.6

321
357
384
410
466

111.5
116.5
117.5
121.5
132.0

769
803
810
838
910

69
67
67
61
34

213
223
181
98
69

289
302
245
133
94

1200

650

100
1000
3640
8000
12000

51.8
66.6
76.3
76.5
77.5

357
459
526
527
534

114.5
133.5
142.0
144.0
144.0

789
920
979
993
993

69
37
33
28
32

191
35
35
40
38

259
47
47
54
52

1300

705

100
1000
4000

58.7
70.5
70.6

405
486
487

126.5
138.0
138.0

872
952
952

38
33
36

57
48
48

77
65
65

1400

760

100
1000
4000
8000
12000

58.3
56.3
58.1
58.5
56.4

402
388
401
403
389

126.5
126.0
128.5
130.0
129.5

872
879
886
896
893

35
37
38
40
38

56
63
62
64
67

76
85
84
87
91


Corrosion Resistance

The composition of alloy 617 includes substantial amounts of nickel, chromium, and aluminum for a high degree of resistance to oxidation and carburization at high temperatures. Those elements, along with the molybdenum content, also enable the alloy to withstand many wet corrosive environments.

Oxidation and Carburization
The excellent resistance of alloy 617 to oxidation results from the alloy's chromium and aluminum contents. At elevated temperatures, those elements cause the formation of a thin, subsurface zone of oxide particles. The zone forms rapidly upon exposure to high temperatures until it reaches a thickness of 0.001 to 0.002 in. The oxide zone provides the proper diffusion conditions for the formation of a protective chromium oxide layer on the surface of the metal. It also helps to prevent spalling of the protective layer. Alloy 617 has excellent resistance to carburization. The table below shows the superiority of alloy 617 over alloys of similar strength in a gas-carburization test at 1800°F. The weight-gain measurements indicate the amount of carbon absorbed during the test period.

Results of 100-h Carburization Tests in Hydrogen/2% Methane at 1800°F (980°C)

Material

Weight Gain, g/m²

Alloy 617
Alloy 263
Alloy 188
Alloy L-605

35
82
86
138

Corrosion by Acids
Alloy 617 has good resistance to a variety of both reducing and oxidizing acids. The chromium in the alloy confers resistance to oxidizing solutions while the nickel and molybdenum provide resistance to reducing conditions. The molybdenum also contributes resistance to crevice corrosion and pitting.
In boiling nitric acid, at concentrations under 20%, corrosion rates are less than 1mpy (0.025mm/yr). At 70% concentration, the rate is a relatively low 20mpy (0.5 mm/yr). The rates were determined from tests of 72 hrs duration.
In sulfuric acid, alloy 617 has shown useful resistance to concentrations of up to about 30% at a temperature of 175°F and about 10% at boiling temperature. The table below gives the results of laboratory tests in sulfuric acid. Test duration was 72 hrs except for tests in boilng 30% and 40% solutions, which were of 48 hrs duration.
The alloy has shown moderate to poor resistance to hydrochloric acid. Laboratory tests at 175°F have produced corrosion rates of 150 mpy (3.8 mm/yr) at 10% concentration, 95 mpy (2.4 mm/yr) at 20% concentration, and 50 mpy (1.3 mm/yr) at 30% concentration.
Alloy 617 has excellent resistance to phosphoric acid. The table below also gives rates for phosphoric acid containing 1% of hydrofluoric acid. Test duration was 72 hrs. In hydrofluoric acid, alloy 617 exhibits useful resistance to the vapor phase at concentrations up to about 20%. The alloy has poor resistance to the liquid acid.

Corrosion Rates in Sulfuric Acid

Acid
Concentration
%

Corrosion Rate*

175°F (80°C)

Boiling
Temperature

mpy

mm/yr

mpy

mm/yr

5
10
20
30
40
50

--
2
32
44
40
94

--
0.05
0.81
1.12
1.02
2.39

24
28
97
464
838
--

0.61
0.71
2.46
11.89
21.29
--

*Average of two tests.

Corrosion Rates in Phosphoric Acid

Acid
Concentration
%

Corrosion Rate*

H3PO4,
175°F (80°C)

H3PO4,
Boiling

H3PO4+ 1% HF
175°F (80°C)

mpy

mm/yr

mpy

mm/yr

mpy

mm/yr

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
85

0.2
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.6

0.005
0.005
0.010
0.010
0.018
0.010
0.010
0.015

0.1
0.4
0.5
5
31
50
38
26

0.003
0.010
0.013
0.13
0.79
1.27
0.97
0.66

0.9
2
1
6
8
6
0.6
0.4

0.023
0.05
0.03
0.15
0.20
0.15
0.015
0.010

*Average of two tests.

Corrosion Rates in Hydrofluoric Acid at 175°F

Acid
Concentration
%

Corrosion Rate*

Vapor Phase

Liquid Phase

mpy

mm/yr

mpy

mm/yr

10
20
30
40
48

44
32
82
85
104

1.12
0.81
2.08
2.16
2.64

126
302
396
424
428

3.20
7.67
10.06
10.77
10.87

*Average of two tests.


Machinability

Alloy 617 has good fabricability. Forming, machining, and welding are carried out by standard procedures for nickel alloys. Techniques and equipment for some operations may be influenced by the alloy's strength and work-hardening rate.

Hot and Cold Forming
Alloy 617 has good hot formability, but it requires relatively high forces because of its inherent strength at elevated temperatures. In general, the hot-forming characteristics of alloy 617 are similar to those of Inconel alloy 625. The temperature range for heavy forming or forging is 1850 to 2200°F . Light working can be done at temperatures down to 1700°F.
Alloy 617 is readily cold formed by conventional procedures although its work-hardening rate is high. For best results , the alloy should be cold formed in the fine-grain condition, and frequent intermediate anneals should be used. Annealing for cold forming should be done at 1900°F.

Heat Treatment
Alloy 617 is normally used in the solution-annealed condition. That condition provides a coarse grain structure for the best creep-rupture strength. It also provides the best bend ductility at room temperature. Solution annealing is performed at a temperature of 2150°F for a time commensurate with section size. Cooling should be by water quenching or rapid air cooling.

Joining
Alloy 617 has excellent weldability. Inconel Filler Metal 617 is used for gas-tungsten-arc and gas-metal-arc welding. The composition of the filler metal matches that of the base metal, and deposited weld metal is comparable to the wrought alloy in strength and corrosion resistance. The table below lists typical room temperature tensile properties of all-weld-metal specimens from welded joints.

Room-Temperature Tensile Properties in As-Welded Condition of Joints Welded with Inconel Filler Metal 617

Specimen

Yield Strength
(0.2% Offset)

Tensile Strength

Elongation
%

Reduction
of Area
%

1000 psi

MPa

1000 psi

MPa

All-Weld-Metal*
All-Weld-Metal**

73.9
78.6

510
542

110.4
119.3

761
823

43.3
37.3

42.0
38.3

 

 

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Inconel

 

Inconel is a family of austenite nickel-chromium-based superalloys. The name is a trademark ofSpecial Metals Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Precision Castparts Corp.

Inconel alloys are oxidation and corrosion resistant materials well suited for service in extreme environments subjected to pressure and heat. When heated, Inconel forms a thick, stable,passivating oxide layer protecting the surface from further attack. Inconel retains strength over a wide temperature range, attractive for high temperature applications where aluminum and steel would succumb to creep as a result of thermally induced crystal vacancies. Inconel’s high temperature strength is developed by solid solution strengthening or precipitation strengthening, depending on the alloy.

Inconel alloys are typically used in high temperature applications. It is sometimes referred to in English as "Inco" (or occasionally "Inconel"). Common trade names for Inconel Alloy 625 include: Inconel 625, Chronin 625, Altemp 625, Haynes 625, Nickelvac 625 and Nicrofer 6020. 

Composition

Different Inconels have widely varying compositions, but all are predominantly nickel, with chromium as the second element.

Inconel

Element (% by mass)

Ni

Cr

Fe

Mo

Nb

Co

Mn

Cu

Al

Ti

Si

C

S

P

B

600 

72.0

14.0-17.0

6.0-10.0

     

1.0

0.5

   

0.5

0.15

0.015

   

617 

44.2-56.0

20.0-24.0

3.0

8.0-10.0

 

10.0-15.0

0.5

0.5

0.8-1.5

0.6

0.5

0.15

0.015

0.015

0.006

625 

58.0

20.0-23.0

5.0

8.0-10.0

3.15-4.15

1.0

0.5

 

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.1

0.015

0.015

 

690 

59.5

30

9.2

     

0.35

0.01

0.02

 

0.35

0.019

0.003

   

718 

50.0-55.0

17.0-21.0

balance

2.8-3.3

4.75-5.5

1.0

0.35

0.2-0.8

0.65-1.15

0.3

0.35

0.08

0.015

0.015

0.006

X-750

70.0

14.0-17.0

5.0-9.0

 

0.7-1.2

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.4-1.0

2.25-2.75

0.5

0.08

0.01

   

Properties

Inconel alloys are oxidation- and corrosion-resistant materials well suited for service in extreme environments subjected to high pressure and kinetic energy. When heated, Inconel forms a thick and stable passivating oxide layer protecting the surface from further attack. Inconel retains strength over a wide temperature range, attractive for high-temperature applications where aluminium and steel would succumb to creep as a result of thermally induced crystal vacancies (see Arrhenius equation). Inconel's high temperature strength is developed by solid solution strengthening or precipitation strengthening, depending on the alloy. In age-hardening or precipitation-strengthening varieties, small amounts of niobiumcombine with nickel to form the intermetallic compound Ni3Nb or gamma prime (γ'). Gamma prime forms small cubic crystals that inhibit slip and creep effectively at elevated temperatures. The formation of gamma-prime crystals increases over time, especially after three hours of a heat exposure of 850 °C, and continues to grow after 72 hours of exposure.

Machining

Inconel is a difficult metal to shape and machine using traditional techniques due to rapidwork hardening. After the first machining pass, work hardening tends to plastically deform either the workpiece or the tool on subsequent passes. For this reason, age-hardened Inconels such as 718 are machined using an aggressive but slow cut with a hard tool, minimizing the number of passes required. Alternatively, the majority of the machining can be performed with the workpiece in a solutionized form, with only the final steps being performed after age hardening.

External threads are machined using a lathe to "single-point" the threads or by rolling the threads in the solution treated condition (for hardenable alloys) using a screw machine. Inconel 718 can also be roll-threaded after full aging by using induction heat to 1300 °F without increasing the grain size. Holes with internal threads are made by threadmilling. Internal threads can also be formed using a sinker EDM (electrical discharge machining).

Cutting of a plate is often done with a waterjet cutter. New whisker-reinforced ceramic cutters are also used to machine nickel alloys. They remove material at a rate typically eight times faster than carbide cutters. Apart from these methods, Inconel parts can also be manufactured by selective laser melting.

Joining

Welding of some Inconel alloys (especially the gamma prime precipitation hardened family,e.g. Waspalloy and X-750) can be difficult due to cracking and microstructural segregation of alloying elements in the heat-affected zone. However, several alloys such as 625 and 718 have been designed to overcome these problems. The most common welding methods are gas tungsten arc welding and electron beam welding.

Innovations in pulsed micro laser welding have also become more popular in recent years for specific applications.

Uses

Inconel is often encountered in extreme environments. It is common in gas turbine blades, seals, and combustors, as well as turbocharger rotors and seals, electric submersible well pump motor shafts, high temperature fasteners, chemical processing and pressure vessels,heat exchanger tubing, steam generators and core components in nuclear pressurized water reactors,[13] natural gas processing with contaminants such as H2S and CO2firearmsound suppressor blast baffles, and Formula OneNASCAR and APR, LLC exhaust systems  It is also used in the turbo system of the 3rd generation Mazda RX7, and the exhaust systems of high powered rotary engined Norton motorcycles where exhaust temperatures reach more than 1,000 degrees C.[16] Inconel is increasingly used in the boilers of waste incinerators. The Joint European Torus and DIII-D (fusion reactor)tokamaks vacuum vessels are made in Inconel. Inconel 718 is commonly used for cryogenic storage tanks, downhole shafts and wellhead parts.

Several applications of inconel in aerospace include:

·         North American Aviation constructed the skin of the North American X-15 Rocket-powered aircraft out of an Inconel alloy known as "Inconel X".

·         Rocketdyne used Inconel X-750 for the thrust chamber of the F-1 rocket engine used in the first stage of the Saturn V booster.

·         SpaceX uses inconel in the engine manifold of their Merlin rocket engine which powers the Falcon 9 launch vehicle.

·         In a first for 3D printing, the SpaceX SuperDraco engine that provides launch escape system and propulsive-landing thrust for the Dragon V2 crew-carrying space capsule is fully printed, the first fully printed rocket engine. In particular, the engine combustion chamber is printed of Inconel using a process of direct metal laser sintering, and operates at a chamber pressure of 6,900 kilopascals (1,000 psi) at a very high temperature.

Tesla Motors is now using Inconel, in place of steel, to upgrade the main battery pack contactor in its Model S so that it remains springy under the heat of heavy current. Teslaclaims that this allows upgraded vehicles to safely increase the max pack output from 1300 to 1500 Amps, allowing for an increase in power output (acceleration) Tesla refers to as "Ludicrous Mode."

Rolled Inconel was frequently used as the recording medium by engraving in black boxrecorders on aircraft.

Alternatives to the use of Inconel in chemical applications such as scrubbers, columns, reactors, and pipes are Hastelloyperfluoroalkoxy (PFA) lined carbon steel or fiber reinforced plastic.

The exhaust valves on NHRA Top Fuel and Funny Car drag racing engines are made of Inconel. Iconel is also used in the manufacture of exhaust valves in high performance aftermarket turbo and Supercharged Mazda Miata engine builds (see Flying Miata INC).

Inconel alloys

Alloys of inconel include:

·         Inconel 600: Solid solution strengthened

·         Inconel 625: Acid resistant, good weldability. The LCF version is typically used in bellows.

·         Inconel 690: Low cobalt content for nuclear applications, and low resistivity

·         Inconel 713C: Precipitaion hardenable nickel-chromium base cast alloy

·         Inconel 718: Gamma double prime strengthened with good weldability

·         Inconel 751: Increased aluminium content for improved rupture strength in the 1600 °F range

·         Inconel 792: Increased aluminium content for improved high temperature corrosion properties, used especially in gas turbines

·         Inconel 939: Gamma prime strengthened to increase weldability

In age hardening or precipitation strengthening varieties, alloying additions of aluminum and titanium combine with nickel to form the intermetallic compound Ni3(Ti,Al) or gamma prime (γ’). Gamma prime forms small cubic crystals that inhibit slip and creep effectively at elevated temperatures.

Availability:

 

 

 
 

INCONEL 617 Plate

INCONEL 617 Fittings

INCONEL 617 Tube / Pipe

 

 

 

 

 

INCONEL 617 Bar

INCONEL 617 Sheet

INCONEL 617 Coil /Strap

 

 

 

 

 

INCONEL 617 Fasteners / Flanges

INCONEL 617 Powder

INCONEL 617 Welding Product

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Disclaimer
Every effort is made to ensure that technical specifications are accurate. However, technical specifications included herein should be used as a guideline only. All specifications are subject to change without notice.