6061 aluminium alloy

 

6061 is a precipitation hardening aluminium alloy, containing magnesium and silicon as its major alloying elements. Originally called "Alloy 61S," it was developed in 1935. It has good mechanical properties and exhibits good weldability. It is one of the most common alloys of aluminium for general purpose use.

It is commonly available in pre-tempered grades such as 6061-O (annealed) and tempered grades such as 6061-T6 (solutionized and artificially aged) and 6061-T651 (solutionized, stress-relieved stretched and artificially aged).

·          Basic properties

6061 has a density of 2.70 g/cm³ (0.0975 lb/in³).

Chemical composition

The alloy composition of 6061 is:

·         Silicon minimum 0.4%, maximum 0.8% by weight

·         Iron no minimum, maximum 0.70%

·         Copper minimum 0.15%, maximum 0.40%

·         Manganese no minimum, maximum 0.15%

·         Magnesium minimum 0.8%, maximum 1.2%

·         Chromium minimum 0.04%, maximum 0.35%

·         Zinc no minimum, maximum 0.25%

·         Titanium no minimum, maximum 0.15%

·         Other elements no more than 0.05% each, 0.15% total

·         Remainder Aluminium (95.85%–98.56%)

 

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Mechanical properties

The mechanical properties of 6061 depend greatly on the temper, or heat treatment, of the material. Young's Modulus is 10×106 psi (69 GPa) regardless of temper.

6061

Annealed 6061 (6061-O temper) has maximum tensile strength no more than 18,000 psi (125 MPa), and maximum yield strengthno more than 8,000 psi (55 MPa). The material has elongation (stretch before ultimate failure) of 25–30%.

6061-T4

T4 temper 6061 has an ultimate tensile strength of at least 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and yield strength of at least 16,000 psi (110 MPa). It has elongation of 16%.

6061-T6

T6 temper 6061 has an ultimate tensile strength of at least 42,000 psi (300 MPa) and yield strength of at least 35,000 psi (241 MPa). More typical values are 45,000 psi (310 MPa) and 40,000 psi (275 MPa), respectively.[4] In thicknesses of 0.250 inch (6.35 mm) or less, it has elongation of 8% or more; in thicker sections, it has elongation of 10%. T651 temper has similar mechanical properties. The typical value for thermal conductivity for 6061-T6 at 77°F is around 152 W/m K. A material data sheet[5] defines the fatigue limit under cyclic load as 14,000 psi (100 MPa) for 500,000,000 completely reversed cycles using a standard RR Moore test machine and specimen. Note that aluminum does not exhibit a well defined "knee" on its S-n graph, so there is some debate as to how many cycles equates to "infinite life". Also note the actual value of fatigue limit for an application can be dramatically affected by the conventional de-rating factors of loading, gradient, and surface finish. The properties of Aluminum are to be pertaining till the austinite temperature reaches and so martensitic hardening is prevented in all form of polycrystalline structures .

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Uses

6061 is commonly used for the following:

·         construction of aircraft structures, such as wings and fuselages, more commonly in homebuilt aircraft than commercial or military aircraft.[6] 2024 alloy is somewhat stronger, but 6061 is more easily worked and remains resistant to corrosion even when the surface is abraded, which is not the case for 2024, which is usually used with a thin Alclad coating for corrosion resistance

·         yacht construction, including small utility boats

·         automotive parts, such as wheel spacers.

·         aluminium cans for the packaging of foodstuffs and beverages.

·         SCUBA tanks (post 1995)

6061-T6 is used for:

·         bicycle frames and components.

·         many fly fishing reels.

·         The famous Pioneer plaque was made of this particular alloy.

·         the secondary chambers and baffle systems in firearm sound suppressors (primarily pistol suppressors for reduced weight and improved mechanical functionality), while the primary expansion chambers usually require 17-4PH or 303 stainless steel ortitanium.

·         The upper and lower receivers of many AR-15 rifle variants.

·         Many aluminum docks and gangways are constructed with 6061-T6 extrusions, and welded into place.

·         Material used in some ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chambers

·         Many parts for remote controlled model aircraft, notably helicopter rotor components.

Welding

6061 is highly weldable, for example using tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) or metal inert gas welding (MIG). Typically, after welding, the properties near the weld are those of 6061-O, a loss of strength of around 80%. The material can be re-heat-treated to restore -T4 or -T6 temper for the whole piece. After welding, the material can naturally age and restore some of its strength as well. Nevertheless, the Alcoa Structural Handbook recommends the design strength of the material adjacent to the weld to be taken as 11,000 psi (75 MPa) without proper heat treatment after the weld.[citation needed] Typical filler material is 4043 or 5356.

Extrusions

6061 is an alloy used in the production of extrusions—long constant–cross-section structural shapes produced by pushing metal through a shaped die.

Forgings

6061 is an alloy that is suitable for hot forging. The billet is heated through an induction furnace and forged using a closed die process. Automotive parts, ATV parts, and industrial parts are just some of the uses as a forging.

Standards

Different forms and tempers of 6061 aluminum alloy are discussed in the following standards:

·         ASTM B 209: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate

·         ASTM B 210: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes

·         ASTM B 211: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Bar, Rod, and Wire

·         ASTM B 221: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Extruded Bars, Rods, Wire, Profiles, and Tubes

·         ASTM B 308: Standard Specification for Aluminum-Alloy 6061-T6 Standard Structural Profiles

·         ASTM B 483: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Drawn Tube and Pipe for General Purpose Applications

·         ASTM B 547: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Formed and Arc-Welded Round Tube

·         ISO 6361: Wrought Aluminium and Aluminium Alloy Sheets, Strips and Plates

 

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Technical Data Sheet

 

Chemical Composition Limits

Weight%

Al

Si

Fe

Cu

Mn

Mg

Cr

Zn

Ti

Other Each

Others Total

6061

Bal

0.40 - 0.80

0.70 max

0.15-0.40

0.15

0.8-1.2

0.04-0.35

0.25 max

0.15 max

0.05 max

0.15 max

Aluminum 6061 is an extremely versatile heat treatable aluminum alloy due to its content of silicon and magnesium. 6061 has a wide range of mechanical and corrosion resistance properties as well as having most of the good qualities of aluminum. 6061 is used in a many applications from aircraft structures, yacht construction, truck bodies, bicycle frames to screw machine parts.

Typical Mechanical Properties

 

Material

Thickness (in)

Tensile Strength (ksi)

Yield Strength (ksi)

Elongation

Alloy 6061 Sheet T6

0.020-0.500

42

35

10

Alloy 6061 Sheet T6

0.500-1.000 FREE

42

35

9

Alloy 6061 Sheet T6

1.00-2.00

42

35

8

Alloy 6061 Sheet T6

2.00-4.00

42

35

6

Alloy 6061 Sheet T6

4.00-6.00

40

35

6

 

Material

Temper

Diameter (in)

Tensile Strength (ksi)

Yield Strength (ksi)

Elongation

Alloy 6061 Bar 
Cold Finished

T651

All

42

35

10

Alloy 6061 Bar 
Cold Finished

T6511

<0.25"

38

35

8

Alloy 6061 Bar 
Cold Finished

T6511

>0.25"

38

35

10

Alloy 6061 Bar - T651 / T6 condition and extruded T6511/T6


Availability
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Specifications
BS L117 Alloy 6061 Tube Drawn T6 
BS L118 Alloy 6061 Tube Drawn T6 Hydraulically Tested 
H20
HE20 6061 Extrusions
HP20 6061 Plate
HS20 6061 Sheet
AMS 4009 6061-0 Foil 
AMS 4021 6061-0 Alclad Sheet and Plate
AMS 4022 6061 Alclad Sheet and Plate Cancelled
AMS 4023 6061 Alclad Sheet and Plate Cancelled
AMS 4025 6061-0 Sheet and Plate
AMS 4026 6061-T4 Sheet T451 Plate
AMS 4027 6061-T6 Sheet and T651 Plate
AMS 4053 6061 Cancelled
AMS 4079 6061-0 Tube Drawn Seamless Close Tolerence 
AMS 4080 6061-0 Tube Drawn Seamless
AMS 4081 6081-T4 Tube Drawn Seamless Hydraulic
AMS 4082 6061-T6 Tube Drawn Seamless
AMS 4083 6061-T6 Tube Drawn Seamless Hydraulic
AMS 4091 Superseded by AMS 4081
AMS 4092 Superseded by AMS 4082
AMS 4093 Superseded by AMS 4083
AMS 4113 6061-T6 Extruded shapes
AMS 4115 6061-0 Cold finished bars, rod, wire
AMS 4116 6061-T4 Cold finished bars, rod, wire
AMS 4117 6061-T6/T651 Cold finished bars, rod, wire
AMS 4127 6061-T6 Forgings Rolled or Forged 
AMS 4128 6061-T451 Bars Rolled or Forged
AMS 4129 6061-T651 Superseded by 4117
AMS 4146 6061-T4 Forgings
AMS 4150 6061-T6 Extrusions and Rings
AMS 4160 6061-0 Extrusion 
AMS 4161 6061-T4 Extrusion 
AMS 4172 6061-T4511 Extrusion
AMS 4173 6061-T6511 Extrusion
QQ-A-200/8 6061-T6/T6511 Extruded bar, tube, section
QQ-A-200/16 6061-T6 extruded stuctural shapes 
QQ-A-225/8 6061-T6 / T651 Cold finished bar, tube, section
QQ-A-250/11 6061 Sheet and Plate
WW-T-700/6 6061-T6 Seamless, drawn tube
MIL-T-7081 6061-T6 Hydraulic tube
QQ-A-367 6061 Forgings
WS 3.3211
WS 3.3214
EN 2392 6061-T6 Tube
EN 2694 6061-T6 Sheet, strip
EN 3341 6061-T4 Sheet, strip
EN 3342 6061-T4 Extruded bar
EN 3557 
EN 4213 6061-T651 Plate
AWCO-22
Birmetal-016
BA22
Duricilium-Q
Hiduminium-43
LA 380
ABM 2-3023
ABM 2-3025
ABM 2-3026
ABS 5144
ABS 5151
BACM 123 
BACM 171 6061-0 Tube
A-GSUC 
L-3453
ASN-A-3277
NCT 15-238-01
AIR 9048.210 6061-0 Sheet
AIR 9048.220 6061-T4 Sheet
AIR 9048.230 6061-0 Sheet
AIR 9048.240 6061-T6 Sheet
AIR 9049

 Disclaimer
Every effort is made to ensure that technical specifications are accurate. However, technical specifications included herein should be used as a guideline only. All specifications are subject to change without notice.

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