Titanium alloy


Titanium alloys are metals that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. Such alloys have very high tensile strength andtoughness (even at extreme temperatures). They are light in weight, have extraordinary corrosion resistance and the ability to withstand extreme temperatures. However, the high cost of both raw materials and processing limit their use to military applications, aircraft,spacecraft, medical devices, highly stressed components such as connecting rods on expensive sports cars and some premium sports equipment and consumer electronics.

Although "commercially pure" titanium has acceptable mechanical properties and has been used for orthopedic and dental implants, for most applications titanium is alloyed with small amounts of aluminium and vanadium, typically 6% and 4% respectively, by weight. This mixture has a solid solubility which varies dramatically with temperature, allowing it to undergo precipitation strengthening. This heat treatmentprocess is carried out after the alloy has been worked into its final shape but before it is put to use, allowing much easier fabrication of a high-strength product.

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 Commercially Pure Grades


British Specs

US Specs

ASTM Specs

German Specs

French Specs

Grade 1


AMS-T-9046B CP4
AMS 4940 MIL-T-9046J CP4

ASTM B265 Gr1 Sheet/plate
ASTM B337 Gr1 pipe (withdrawn)
ASTM B338 Gr1 heat exchange tube
ASTM B348 Gr1 bar
ASTM B367 Gr1 castings
ASTM B381 Gr1 forgings
ASTM F67 Gr1 Surgical Implant
ASTM F467 Gr1 nuts
ASTM F468 Gr 1 bolts

WS 3.7024 CP Grade 1
WS 3.7025 CP Grade 1

T35- CP Grade 1

Grade 2

TA1 sheet/strip
TA2 sheet/strip
TA3 bar (obs)
TA4 forging (obs)
TA5 forging (obs) DTD 5073
IMI 125

AMS-T-9046B CP3
AMS 4902 MIL-T-9046J CP3
AMS 4941
AMS 4942
AMS 4951 Welding wire*

ASTM B265 Gr2 Sheet/plate
ASTM B337 Gr2 pipe (withdrawn)
ASTM B338 Gr2 heat exchange tube*
ASTM B348 Gr2 bar
ASTM B367 Gr2 castings
ASTM B381 Gr2 forgings
ASTM F67 Gr2 Surgical Implant
ASTM F467 Gr2 nuts
ASTM F468 Gr2 bolts

WS 3.7034 CP Grade 2
WS 3.7035 CP Grade 2

T40- CP Grade 2
T40- AIR 9182

Grade 3

MSRR 8608
DTD 5003
DTD 5023

AMS-T-9046B CP2
AMS 4900

MIL-T-9046J CP2

ASTM B265 Gr3 Sheet/plate
ASTM B337 Gr3 pipe (withdrawn)
ASTM B338 Gr3 heat exchange tube*
ASTM B348 Gr3 bar
ASTM B367 Gr3 castings
ASTM B381 Gr3 forgings
ASTM F67 Gr3 Surgical Implant
ASTM F467 Gr3 nuts
ASTM F468 Gr3 bolts

WS 3.7054 CP Grade 3
WS 3.7055 CP Grade 3

T50- CP Grade 3

Grade 4


AMS-T-9046B CP1
AMS-T-9047A CP70
AMS 4901
AMS 4921 MIL-T-9046J CP1
MIL-T-9047G CP70

ASTM B265 Gr4 Sheet/plate
ASTM B337 Gr4 pipe (withdrawn)
ASTM B338 Gr4 heat exchange tube*
ASTM B348 Gr4 bar
ASTM B367 Gr4 castings
ASTM B381 Gr4 forgings
ASTM F67 Gr4 Surgical Implant
ASTM F467 Gr4 nuts
ASTM F468 Gr4 bolts

WS 3.7064 CP Grade 4
WS 3.7065 CP Grade 4

T60- CP Grade 4

Grade 7



ASTM B265 Gr7 Sheet/plate
ASTM B337 Gr7 pipe (withdrawn)
ASTM B338 Gr7 heat exchange tube*
ASTM B348 Gr7 bar
ASTM B367 Gr7 castings
ASTM B381 Gr7 forgings
ASTM F467 Gr7 nuts
ASTM F468 Gr7 bolts



Grade 12



ASTM B265 Gr12 Sheet/plate
ASTM B337 Gr12 pipe (withdrawn)
ASTM B338 Gr12 heat exchange tube*
ASTM B348 Gr12 bar
ASTM B367 Gr12 castings
ASTM B381 Gr12 forgings
ASTM F467 Gr12 nuts
ASTM F468 Gr12 bolts




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Alpha Titanium Alloys


British Specs

US Specs

ASTM Specs

German Specs

French Specs

Grade 6

DTD 5083
TA14 (w/drawn)
TA15 (w/drawn)
TA16 (w/drawn)
TA17 (w/drawn)

AMS 4909
AMS 4910
AMS 4924
AMS 4926
AMS 4966
AMS-T-9046B A-1
AMS-T-9047A 5Al-2.5Sn
AMS-T-9046B A-2 (ELI)
AMS-T-9047A 5Al-2.5Sn (ELI)
MIL-T-9046J A-1
MIL-T-9046J A-2 (ELI)
MIL-T-9046H Type II Comp A
MIL-T-9046H Type II Comp B

ASTM B265 Gr6 Sheet/plate
ASTM B348 Gr6 bar
ASTM B367 Gr6 castings
ASTM B381 Gr6 forgings

WS 3.7114 




AMS 4915
AMS 4916
AMS 4972
AMS 6910
AMS-T-9046B A-4
AMS-T-9047A 8Al-1Mo-1v
MIL-T-9046J A-4
MIL-T-9046H Type II Comp F
MIL-T-9047G 8Al-1Mo-1V


WS 3.7134


Alpha-Beta Titanium Alloys


British Specs

US Specs

ASTM Specs

German Specs

French Specs

Grade 5

MSRR 8614
MSRR 8652
AIMS 03/18/001
DTD 5163
DTD 5363 

AMS 4907 ELI
AMS 4911
AMS 4928
AMS 4930 ELI
AMS 4931 ELI Duplex ann
AMS 4963
AMS 4965
AMS 4967
AMS 4985
AMS 4991
AMS 6931
AMS 6932
MIL-T-9046J AB-1
MIL-T-9046J AB-2 (ELI)
MIL-T-9046H Type 3 Comp C
MIL-T-9046H Type 3 Comp D
AMS-T-9046B AB-1
AMS-T-9046B AB-2 (ELI)
MIL-T-9047G 6Al-4v
MIL-T-9047G 6Al-4v (ELI)
AMS-T-9047A 6Al-4v
AMS-T-9047A 6Al-4v (ELI

ASTM B265 Gr5 Sheet/plate
ASTM B348 Gr5 bar
ASTM B367 Gr5 castings
ASTM B381 Gr5 forgings
ASTM F136 Gr5 Implant Grade(*ground*)
ASTM F467 Gr5 nuts
ASTM F468 Gr5 bolts

WS 3.7164 (aerospace)
WS 3.7165

T-A6VE (6Al-4V ELI)

Grade 9


AMS 4943
AMS 4944
AMS 4945
AMS-T-9046B AB-5
AMS-T-9047A 3Al-2.5V
MIL-T-9046J AB-5
MIL-T-9047 3Al-2.5V

ASTM B265 Gr6 Sheet/plate
ASTM B348 Gr6 bar
ASTM B367 Gr6 castings
ASTM B381 Gr6 forgings





AMS 4918
AMS 4971
AMS 4978
AMS 4979
AMS 6935
AMS 6936
AMS-T-9046B AB-3
AMS-T-9047A 6Al-6V-2Sn
MIL-T-9046J AB-3
MIL-T-9047G 6Al-6V-2Sn
MIL-T-9046H Type III Comp E


WS 3.7174



TA18 (w/drawn)
TA19 (w/drawn)
TA20 (w/drawn)
TA25 (w/drawn)
TA26 (w/drawn)
TA27 (w/drawn)

AMS 4919
AMS 4975
AMS 4981
AMS 6905
AMS-T-9046B AB-4
AMS-T-9047A 6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo
MIL-T-9046J AB-4
MIL-T-9047G 6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo
MIL-T-9046H Type III Comp G


WS 3.7144





ASTM F-1295
ISO 5832-11



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Other / Withdrawn Specifications


British Specs

US Specs

ASTM Specs

German Specs

French Specs

Grade 550

TA29 TA30
TA31 TA32
TA33 TA34
TA35 TA36
TA37 TA37
(Above specs all
withdrawn) TA45 TA46
TA47 TA48
TA49 TA50
TA51 TA59





Alloy 230
Titanium 2.5%Cu

TA21 TA22
TA23 TA24
TA52 TA53
TA54 TA55
DTD 5123



WS 3.7124



TA38 TA39
TA40 TA41
TA42 TA43



WS 3.7154


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·         1 Transition temperature

·         2 Categories

·         3 Properties

·         4 Grades of titanium

·         5 Titanium alloys used biomedically

·         6 References

·         7 External links

Transition temperature

The crystal structure of titanium at ambient temperature and pressure is close-packed hexagonal α phase with a c/a ratio of 1.587. At about 890 °C, the titanium undergoes an allotropic transformation to a body-centred cubic β phase which remains stable to the melting temperature.

Some alloying elements raise the alpha-to-beta transition temperature

while others lower the transition temperature (i.e., beta stabilizers). Aluminium, galliumgermaniumcarbonoxygen and nitrogen are alpha stabilizers. Molybdenum,vanadiumtantalumniobiummanganeseironchromiumcobaltnickelcopper and silicon are beta stabilizers.[1]


Titanium alloys are generally classified into four main categories:

·         Alpha alloys which contain neutral alloying elements (such as tin) and/ or alpha stabilisers (such as aluminium or oxygen) only. These are not heat treatable.

·         Near-alpha alloys contain small amount of ductile beta-phase. Besides alpha-phase stabilisers, near-alpha alloys are alloyed with 1–2% of beta phase stabilizers such as molybdenum, silicon or vanadium.

·         Alpha and beta alloys, which are metastable and generally include some combination of both alpha and beta stabilisers, and which can be heat treated.

·         Beta alloys, which are metastable and which contain sufficient beta stabilisers (such as molybdenum, silicon and vanadium) to allow them to maintain the beta phase when quenched, and which can also be solution treated and aged to improve strength.


Generally, alpha-phase titanium is the more ductile phase and beta-phase titanium is stronger yet less ductile. Alpha-beta-phase titanium has a mechanical property which is in between both.

Titanium dioxide dissolves in the metal at high temperatures, and its formation is very energetic. These two factors mean that all titanium except the most carefully purified has a significant amount of dissolved oxygen, and so may be considered a Ti-O alloy. Oxide precipitates offer some strength (as discussed above), but are not very responsive to heat treatment and can substantially decrease the alloy's toughness.

Many alloys also contain titanium as a minor additive, but since alloys are usually categorized according to which element forms the majority of the material, these are not usually considered to be "titanium alloys" as such. See the sub-article on titanium applications.

Titanium alone is a strong, light metal. It is stronger than common, low-carbon steels, but 45% lighter. It is also twice as strong as weak aluminium alloys but only 60% heavier. Titanium has outstanding corrosion resistance to sea water, and thus is used in propeller shafts, rigging and other parts of boats that are exposed to sea water. Titanium and its alloys are used in airplanes, missiles and rockets where strength, low weight and resistance to high temperatures are important. Further, since titanium does not react within the human body, it and its alloys are used to create artificial hips, pins for setting bones, and for other biological implants. See Titanium#Orthopedic implants.

Grades of titanium

"Alloys may be supplied in the following conditions: Grades 5, 23, 24, 25, 29, 35, or 36 annealed or aged; Grades 9, 18, 28, or 38 cold-worked and stress-relieved or annealed; Grades 9, 18, 23, 28, or 29 transformed-beta condition; and Grades 19, 20, or 21 solution-treated or solution-treated and aged."

"Note 1—H grade material is identical to the corresponding numeric grade (that is, Grade 2H = Grade 2) except for the higher guaranteed minimum UTS, and may always be certified as meeting the requirements of its corresponding numeric grade. Grades 2H, 7H, 16H, and 26H are intended primarily for pressure vessel use."

"The H grades were added in response to a user association request based on its study of over 5200 commercial Grade 2, 7, 16, and 26 test reports, where over 99 % met the 58 ksi minimum UTS."

·         Grade 1 is the most ductile and softest titanium alloy. It is a good solution for cold forming and corrosive environments. ASME SB-265 provides the standards for grade 1 titanium sheet and plate.

·         Grade 2 Unalloyed titanium, standard oxygen.

·         Grade 2H Unalloyed titanium (Grade 2 with 58 ksi minimum UTS).

·         Grade 3 Unalloyed titanium, medium oxygen.

Grades 1-4 are unalloyed and considered commercially pure or "CP". Generally the tensile and yield strength goes up with grade number for these "pure" grades. The difference in their physical properties is primarily due to the quantity of interstitial elements. They are used for corrosion resistance applications where cost, ease of fabrication, and welding are important.

·        Grade 5, also known as Ti6Al4VTi-6Al-4V or Ti 6-4, is the most commonly used alloy. It has a chemical composition of 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium, 0.25% (maximum) iron, 0.2% (maximum) oxygen, and the remainder titanium.[5] It is significantly stronger than commercially pure titanium while having the same stiffness and thermal properties (excluding thermal conductivity, which is about 60% lower in Grade 5 Ti than in CP Ti).[6] Among its many advantages, it is heat treatable. This grade is an excellent combination of strength, corrosion resistance, weld and fabricability.

"This alpha-beta alloy is the workhorse alloy of the titanium industry. The alloy is fully heat treatable in section sizes up to 15mm and is used up to approximately 400°C (750°F). Since it is the most commonly used alloy – over 70% of all alloy grades melted are a sub-grade of Ti6Al4V, its uses span many aerospace airframe and engine component uses and also major non-aerospace applications in the marine, offshore and power generation industries in particular."

"Applications: Blades, discs, rings, airframes, fasteners, components. Vessels, cases, hubs, forgings. Biomedical implants."

Generally, Ti-6Al-4V is used in applications up to 400 degrees Celsius. It has a density of roughly 4420 kg/m3Young's modulus of 115 GPa, and tensile strength of 1000 MPa.   By comparison, annealed type 316 stainless steel has a density of 8000 kg/m3, modulus of 193 GPa, and tensile strength of 570 MPa.[9] Tempered 6061 aluminium alloy has a density of 2700 kg/m3, modulus of 69 GPa, and tensile strength of 310 MPa, respectively.

·         Grade 6 contains 5% aluminium and 2.5% tin. It is also known as Ti-5Al-2.5Sn. This alloy is used in airframes and jet engines due to its good weldability, stability and strength at elevated temperatures.

·         Grade 7 contains 0.12 to 0.25% palladium. This grade is similar to Grade 2. The small quantity of palladium added gives it enhanced crevice corrosion resistance at low temperatures and high pH.

·         Grade 7H is identical to Grade 7 with enhanced corrosion resistance.

·         Grade 9 contains 3.0% aluminium and 2.5% vanadium. This grade is a compromise between the ease of welding and manufacturing of the "pure" grades and the high strength of Grade 5. It is commonly used in aircraft tubing for hydraulics and in athletic equipment.

·         Grade 11 contains 0.12 to 0.25% palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.

·         Grade 12 contains 0.3% molybdenum and 0.8% nickel.

·         Grades 1314, and 15 all contain 0.5% nickel and 0.05% ruthenium.

·         Grade 16 contains 0.04 to 0.08% palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.

·         Grade 16H contains 0.04 to 0.08% palladium.

·         Grade 17 contains 0.04 to 0.08% palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.

·         Grade 18 contains 3% aluminium, 2.5% vanadium and 0.04 to 0.08% palladium. This grade is identical to Grade 9 in terms of mechanical characteristics. The added palladium gives it increased corrosion resistance.

·         Grade 19 contains 3% aluminium, 8% vanadium, 6% chromium, 4% zirconium, and 4% molybdenum.

·         Grade 20 contains 3% aluminium, 8% vanadium, 6% chromium, 4% zirconium, 4% molybdenum and 0.04% to 0.08% palladium.

·         Grade 21 contains 15% molybdenum, 3% aluminium, 2.7% niobium, and 0.25% silicon.

·         Grade 23 contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium, 0.13% (maximum) Oxygen. Improved ductility and fracture toughness with some reduction in strength.

·         Grade 24 contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium and 0.04% to 0.08% palladium.

·         Grade 25 contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium and 0.3% to 0.8% nickel and 0.04% to 0.08% palladium.

·         Grades 2626H, and 27 all contain 0.08 to 0.14% ruthenium.

·         Grade 28 contains 3% aluminium, 2.5% vanadium and 0.08 to 0.14% ruthenium.

·         Grade 29 contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium and 0.08 to 0.14% ruthenium.

·         Grades 30 and 31 contain 0.3% cobalt and 0.05% palladium.

·         Grade 32 contains 5% aluminium, 1% tin, 1% zirconium, 1% vanadium, and 0.8% molybdenum.

·         Grades 33 and 34 contain 0.4% nickel, 0.015% palladium, 0.025% ruthenium, and 0.15% chromium .

·         Grade 35 contains 4.5% aluminium, 2% molybdenum, 1.6% vanadium, 0.5% iron, and 0.3% silicon.

·         Grade 36 contains 45% niobium.

·         Grade 37 contains 1.5% aluminium.

·         Grade 38 contains 4% aluminium, 2.5% vanadium, and 1.5% iron. This grade was developed in the 1990s for use as an armor plating. The iron reduces the amount of Vanadium needed as a beta stabilizer. Its mechanical properties are very similar to Grade 5, but has good cold workability similar to grade 9.

Titanium alloys used biomedically

·         While having excellent biocompatibility, Ti-6Al-4V suffers from poor shear strength and poor surface wear properties in certain loading conditions:

Bio compatibility: Excellent, especially when direct contact with tissue or bone is required. Ti-6Al-4V's poor shear strength makes it undesirable for bone screws or plates. It also has poor surface wear properties and tends to seize when in sliding contact with itself and other metals. Surface treatments such as nitriding and oxidizing can improve the surface wear properties.

·         Ti-6Al-7Nb was developed as a biomedical replacement for Ti-6Al-4V alloy because Ti-6Al-4V contains vanadium, an element that has demonstrated cytotoxic outcomes when isolated. Ti-6Al-7Nb contains 6% aluminium and 7% niobium.

Ti6Al7Nb is a dedicated high strength titanium alloy with excellent biocompatibility for surgical implants. Used for replacement hip joints, it has been in clinical use since early 1986.

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Every effort is made to ensure that technical specifications are accurate. However, technical specifications included herein should be used as a guideline only. All specifications are subject to change without notice.